• PhonemicAwareness:

    Phonemic awareness is the ability to hear, identify, and manipulate individual sounds-phonemes--in spoken words. Before children learn to read print, they need to become more aware of how the sounds in words work. They must understand that words are made up of speech sounds, or phonemes (the smallest parts of sound in a spoken word that make a difference in a word's meaning).



    The understanding that letters and combinations of letters are the symbols used to represent the speech sounds; and the idea that there are systematic and predictable relationships between written letters, symbols, and spoken words is known as the alphabetic principle within the English language. The alphabetic principle is the foundation of any alphabetic writing system, which is one of the more common types of writing systems in use today.

    Phonics involves teaching how to connect the sounds of spoken English with letters or groups of letters.

    (Phonological awareness refers to an individual's awareness of the sound structure, or phonological structure,of a spoken word. It includes the ability to auditorily distinguish units of speech, such as a word's syllables and a syllable's individual phonemes. The ability to segment and blend phonemes is critical for the development of decoding skills, reading fluency,and spelling. Phonological awareness is an important and reliable predictor of later reading ability and has, therefore, been the focus of much research. Phonological awareness is often confused with phonics, but it is different. Phonics requires students to match letters or letter patterns with sounds (decoding) and to use this information to read words. Phonological awareness relates only to speech sounds, not to alphabet letters or sound-spellings. Phonemic awareness is a subset of phonological awareness.)



    The ability to read accurately, quickly, effortlessly,and with appropriate expression and meaning can be referred to as a person’s reading fluency.



    Vocabulary is the study of: 1. The meanings of words. Many words have several different meanings each. It is studying the meanings of the words and the part of speech that belongs to it. 2. How the words are used. This involves studying the words in context, applying what you learn by writing sentences with your words.  3. Root words, prefixes, suffixes. Studying these will aid in the study of vocabulary. 4. Analogies: This is comparing two pairs of words and choosing the pair that go together.



    An ability to understand the meaningor importance of something (or the knowledge acquired as a result) is what we call comprehension.


    Developmental Spectrum of Reading Skills:

    9. Vocabulary/Oral Language
     (Word Use Fluency)
    8. Comprehension (Retell Fluency & MAZE)


    7. Fluency (R-CBM/ORF)


    6. Word Knowledge (H-F Words)


    5. Word Reading (NWF)


    4. Phonics (NWF)


    3. Phonological Awareness (PSF/NWF)


    2. AlphabeticPrincipal (NWF)


    1. PhonemicAwareness (ISF/PSF)
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